Urbanisation and Migration
The side effects of a growing economy and urban migration include the creation of a new social class. These new urban citizens often do not have access to public goods and services, including education, health care, and affordable housing. Due to these constraints many have no choice but to opt for informal employment, which worsens the prospects of social inclusion. The increasing inequality results in social tensions and civil unrest in many countries.
In this Policy Initiative, think tanks from Brazil, China, Germany, India, Russia and South Africa are addressing the challenges outlined above by developing policy proposals to be implemented by their respective governments.
The Policy Initiative is coordinated by the Chinese think tank CIRD.
EPF News & Activities
- No EPF Reports
WBCSD| Sustainable Urban Mobility Report - Indore
SMP2.0 has been collaborating with six cities to test and refine its methodology and tools for integrated sustainable urban mobility planning. Indore has been one of the six cities and has worked with Ford Motors (lead), BMW Group, Feedback Brisa Highways (Ezeeway), Volkswagen and Fujitsu from July 2014. This report details how the different steps of the engagement happened in Indore and their outcomes including Indore Mobility Roadmap. WBCSD| Sustainable Urban Mobility Report - Indore
WB | Does Access to Foreign Markets Shape Internal Migration? Evidence from Brazil
In this World Bank working paper, Laura Hering and Rodrigo Paillacar analyse the impact of foreign demand for local goods on internal migration. The authors focus on Brazil and use regionally disaggregated data from the years 1995 to 2003. Their analysis reveals a geographic correlation between workers’ migration and market access, and explains different migration patterns, depending on sectors and educational level. WB: Does Access to Foreign Markets Shape Internal Migration? Evidence from Brazil
IEMS | Wage Discrimination in Urban China: How Hukou Status Affects Migrant Pay
Regardless of China’s increasing growth and prosperity, the amount of migrants without local household registration status is ever increasing. Xiaogang Wu and Zhuoni Zhang from the Institute of Emerging Market Studies (IEMS) emphasise the increasing inequality that this development exacerbates in China’s urban labour markets, and analyse the mechanisms that drive the earnings disparity between rural migrants and urban residents. IEMS: Wage Discrimination in Urban China: How Hukou Status Affects Migrant Pay
IIED | Urbanisation, rural-urban migration and urban poverty
This report attempts to demonstrate the misconception of the rural-urban migration and urban poverty correlation. It states that although a large proportion of the urban poor are rural-urban migrants, it is no homogenous group. Policies based on this assumption bear the risk to amplify poverty and social marginalization. The report concludes by suggesting alternative policy measures that take the heterogeneity of rural-urban migrants into account. IIED | Urbanisation, rural-urban migration and urban poverty
WB | East Asia’s Changing Urban Landscape: Measuring a decade of spatial growth
Although urbanization is transforming less developing countries significantly, its pace, scale, and form remains poorly understood. This World Bank publication addresses this issue by using satellite imagery and other means of measurement to assess urban expansion in the East Asia and Pacific region between 2000 and 2010. Based on the results, it discusses the results implications and provides policy recommendations for governments to maximize the benefits of urban growth. WB: East asia’s Changing Urban LandsCapE Measuring a decade of spatial growth
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